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26 www. bus- ex. com DECEMBER 09

die and re- release its own carbon into the atmosphere. Currently, some countries around the world tax airline passengers in the name of environmental protection. The United Kingdom, for example, charges fees of £ 40 and £ 80 ( depending on seat class) to all visitors. Unfortunately, the money collected is not yet being reinvested in environmental programs; it simply goes to general government funds. In addition, from 2012 on, air carriers serving EU countries will be required to purchase quotas corresponding to their greenhouse gas emissions. The cost of these purchases, which airline operators consider as just one more unwelcome operating expense, will eventually be passed on to passengers, making any personal purchase of carbon credits illogical. But Air Transat, along with other airline operators, believes that more could be done on a short- term basis. While not making a big issue of it, Air Transat reminds its passengers that traveling a little lighter than usual can make a difference. One less pair of shoes or one less paperback for the beach doesn't sound like much, and of course it isn't. But put all those tiny savings together and it starts to make a meaningful difference. Another seemingly insignificant action for Air Transat is to immediately repair chipped and scratched paint surfaces that have an adverse effect on an aircraft's aerodynamics. Engineers have also discovered that more frequent engine washes to clean away hydrocarbons, dirt, grime and insects that build up on fan blades and compressor blades enable engines to burn less fuel to achieve an equivalent amount of thrust. But there is a much more immediate wastage that many think ought to be tackled. It has been estimated that emissions could be lowered by 12 percent over the very short term if governments made efforts to reduce crowded skies, along with congestion at certain airports. Each year, the world's airlines burn thousands of tons of fuel while their planes are simply taxiing between terminals and runways. Before takeoff as well as after landing, an aircraft typically taxis for about 15 minutes. Air Transat has adopted several measures aimed at reducing fuel consumption during ground movements of aircraft, the most important of which is introducing single- engine taxiing, which has the added side benefit of reducing noise levels. During landing, pilots decelerate using a combination of aerodynamic spoilers, thrust reversers and brakes. Traditionally, they have favored thrust reversers to minimize brake wear, but this requires burning a certain amount of fuel to preserve engine thrust. With the advent Air Transat DECEMBER 09 www. bus- ex. com 45 GOAL ( German Operating Aircraft Leasing GmbH & Co KG) is a joint venture which was established in1998 by Deutsche Lufthansa AG and KG Allgemeine Leasing GmbH & Co, with the objective to offer a wide variety of aircraft operating lease structures to the global aircraft market. GOAL's and Air Transat's business relationship started in December 2003 with the lease of one A310- 300. The fleet grew gradually to a maximum of five GOAL aircraft- all of those previously operated by Deutsche Lufthansa. GOAL